Why is there such a vast difference between the types of grants to which we are all subject for this kind of work? Here I would like to highlight four different types that are most commonly applied to this work–
Public Private Foundation (PPF): Funded by taxpayers, PPF funds the work of non-profits that are also private foundations. A non-profit is defined as “any private foundation established as a trust under the United States federal tax code for religious or charitable purposes. All other corporations, corporations with 100 or fewer and charitable corporations may qualify as corporations under this section.” The PPP is the first type of grant to be discussed, since it is most heavily funded and therefore the largest source of funds.
In contrast, non-profits, like for-profit foundations, fund the research of their own people. They cannot raise their own funds to do research but must solicit donations from private citizens. Most for-profit foundations are very small and relatively unknown to the general public. For example: the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Also, philanthropists fund their non-profits by selling the right to use their names, trademarks, and images.
Private Foundation (PF): Generally, private foundations fund the work of non-profit foundations that they partner with. They may not raise a money for their foundation and this form of funding is not as easily seen as the other two forms of grants. Most importantly, foundations must make public their donations. This method of funding is less popular because it might conflict with state transparency laws, but it is very popular with foundations that accept public funds. It is a very high yield of private money for non-profit foundation, since the public funds come from the public, not the private. The first non-profit that ever received funds from a private foundation was the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, founded in 1886 in Utah by John Taylor. Today, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. It gets most of its money from membership dues and donations rather than from donations from corporations or other wealthy individuals.
The second form of grants that are very popular is the Community Development Grant (CDG): A CDG is essentially a public-private partnership in grant making. It has three important characteristics: 1) it gives non-profits the money as a whole, which the private philanthropists can then spend, unlike a CPF (a CP
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